Looking for good programming challenges?

Use the search below to find our solutions for selected questions!

Minimum Swaps To Make Sequences Increasing

Sharing is caring!

Problem Statement
We have two integer sequences A and B of the same non-zero length.

We are allowed to swap elements A[i] and B[i]. Note that both elements are in the same index position in their respective sequences.

At the end of some number of swaps, A and B are both strictly increasing. (A sequence is strictly increasing if and only if A[0] < A[1] < A[2] < ... < A[A.length - 1].)

Given A and B, return the minimum number of swaps to make both sequences strictly increasing. It is guaranteed that the given input always makes it possible.

Example

Input: A = [1,3,5,4], B = [1,2,3,7]
Output: 1
Explanation: 
Swap A[3] and B[3].  Then the sequences are:
A = [1, 3, 5, 7] and B = [1, 2, 3, 4]
which are both strictly increasing.

Note
A, B are arrays with the same length, and that length will be in the range [1, 1000].
A[i], B[i] are integer values in the range [0, 2000].

Solution
We use dynamic programming. The cost of making both sequences increasing up to the first i columns can be expressed in terms of the cost of making both sequences increasing up to the first i-1 columns. This is because the only thing that matters to the ith column is whether the previous column was swapped or not. This makes dynamic programming an ideal choice.

Let’s remember n1 (natural1), the cost of making the first i-1 columns increasing and not swapping the i-1th column; and s1 (swapped1), the cost of making the first i-1 columns increasing and swapping the i-1th column.

Now we want candidates n2 (and s2), the costs of making the first i columns increasing if we do not swap (or swap, respectively) the ith column.

For convenience, say a1 = A[i-1], b1 = B[i-1] and a2 = A[i], b2 = B[i].

Now, if a1 < a2 and b1 < b2, then it is allowed to have both of these columns natural (unswapped), or both of these columns swapped. This possibility leads to n2 = min(n2, n1) and s2 = min(s2, s1 + 1).

Another, (not exclusive) possibility is that a1 < b2 and b1 < a2. This means that it is allowed to have exactly one of these columns swapped. This possibility leads to n2 = min(n2, s1) or s2 = min(s2, n1 + 1). This can be the case if A = [1, 6] and B = [3, 3].

Note that it is important to use two if statements separately, because both of the above possibilities might be possible.

At the end, the optimal solution must leave the last column either natural or swapped, so we take the minimum number of swaps between the two possibilities.

Code

class Solution {
    public int minSwap(int[] A, int[] B) {
        // n: natural, s: swapped
        int n1 = 0, s1 = 1;
        for (int i = 1; i < A.length; ++i) {
            int n2 = Integer.MAX_VALUE, s2 = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            if (A[i-1] < A[i] && B[i-1] < B[i]) {
                n2 = Math.min(n2, n1);
                s2 = Math.min(s2, s1 + 1);
            }
            if (A[i-1] < B[i] && B[i-1] < A[i]) {
                n2 = Math.min(n2, s1);
                s2 = Math.min(s2, n1 + 1);
            }
            n1 = n2;
            s1 = s2;
        }
        return Math.min(n1, s1);
    }
}