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Finding n-th permutation without computing others

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Given S of size n and k, return the kth lexicographic permutation sequence. (Note: Given n will be between 1 and 10 inclusive.)

For n = 10 variable symbols we have 10! possible permutations. The first step is to find the first symbol.
If we fix a first symbol, then the remaining 9 symbols will have 9! possible permutations. Let i be the index (in S) of the
first fixed symbol. Then k = i*((n-1)!) + r. We want to find i, so that i*((n-1)!) is the largest possible number less than or equal to k. Why? Consider the following:

Let k=1000000. If we fix the symbol 'a' at the first position. That is, the symbol with index i = 0 in S we will then have (n-1)! = 9! possible combinations. Which is 362880 and less from what we want.

If we fix the symbol 'b' at the first position, we will have 362880 permutations (of the preceding permutations that started with 'a')
plus 362880 permutations that start with 'b' (a..., ... a..., b..., ...., b...) which is 2*362880=725760 and less than what we want.
That is, the words that start with 'b' are in the range [362880, 725759] which doesn’t include k=1000000:

If we fix the symbol with index i = 2 ('c') we will have a total number of 3*362880 = 1088640 permutations (a..., b..., c....) which includes k = 1000000. In other words, the words that start with 'c' are in the range [725760, 1088639] which includes k=1000000:

Obviously if we fix the symbol with index i = 3, that is, the symbol 'd', the range of the words starting with symbol 'd' will be
[1088640, 1451519] which does not include k=1000000.

The block in which k is located or the index i of the symbol with which the kth permutation starts is:


Let k = 1000000. Then 1000000 = 2*(9!) + 274240. That is the first symbol is the symbol with index 2 in S, which is 'c'. Append 'c' to the result. Then, remove 'c' from S because we have used this symbol, so S becomes [a,b,d,e,f,g,h,i,j] and n = 9. For the next step, k becomes the rest 274240 because we now want to find the 274240th permutation in the 2nd block (permutations that start with 'c'). That is, k = 1000000 % 9! = 274240.

The next symbol index is i = Math.floor(274240/(8!)) = 6 which is 'h' (remember we have one symbol less in the S that is why (n-1)! = 8 !). Append 'h' to the result. Remove 'h' from S so that S becomes [a,b,d,e,f,g,i,j] with n = 8. k becomes 32320.

Repeat these steps until n = 0.

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